The following material refers to landmarks. A user specifies
feature points on a face
to create landmarks. Given enough
data, a program can
normalize the landmarks and average the feature points to create an
Next, any given face can be warped to the shape of the
average face. If many images are warped to align with the average face,
the image data (not just landmarks) can be blended to create a "photo"
of the average face. The method I used to warp the image data was based
on thin-plate spline warps from Dr. Fred Bookstein. Such warps minimize
a "bending energy" basis function.
Is this technique new? F. Galton (see
reported averaging faces as early as
1878 by taking multiple photographic exposures. To minimize the blur, he
matched eye positions of each face. In retrospect, matching eyes anchors the
rough position and orientation of the face, almost like a primitive
This site about entomology and insects tickled my fancy.
Studies of this sort might be useful for missing persons, understanding how
people recognize faces, etc.
Susan Brennan's began a study of faces, described in A. K. Dewdney's
The Tinkertoy Computer. She used 186 data points, then interpolated
between feature points from different people. Dewdney doesn't mention whether
she warped images or only feature points. Dewdney gives an example program,
FACEBENDER, to do some simple manipulations of feature points on a face.
SIGGRAPH Technical Sketch. At SIGGRAPH 1995, Duncan Rowland gave a brief
lecture about his university's work in several aspects of face landmarks.
He researches at
Perception Lab, St. Andrews University, Scotland. Their web page has
excellent illustrations of face landmarks, aging faces, and rating
attractiveness of different faces. Rowland spoke on some things to do
with face images and their landmarks.
Caricature -- To caricature a person,
simply measure the difference between his or her landmarks and the average
face, then amplify the differences. Researchers discovered that up to a
limit, face recognition gets faster the more exaggerated the caricature
Attractiveness -- Researchers quantified the difference between average
faces and attractive faces. They labeled faces as attractive or not
and blended each group to produce an average face. The average "attractive"
face was consistently ranked higher. An "attractive + 50%" face was ranked
higher than the average and the attractive face.
Personal transforms -- Any measurable quality can be considered and
incorporated into a statistical group. We have seen that caricature and
attractiveness can be manipulated. So too can gender and age. Changing
age can change shape, color, or both. With enough data, a person can
pick how much to "age" a photo.
I also like Daddy long legs spiders.
And of course beetles are cute as well.
Maybe not as cute as these roly poly little fellows though.
These guys have two hundred left feet.
Therefore these suckers must have two deci-left feet, maybe?
If you see one of these ugly ticks, I'd steer clear of them.
I didn't realize that scorpions belonged to the Archnida class with some of these other critters.
There's only one scorpion, but lots of spiders that live in Kentucky.