The First Dayes
Discourse, concerning the
Rapier and Dagger.


L. If anie had ever cause to bee sorrowfull for their departure from friends & parents, then had I just occasion to take our departures one from the other most grevious. And therfore our meeting againe in so pleasant a place as this, must needes be verie joyfull and delightsome: wherefore among other favours you have doone mee in instructions of the single Rapier, I intreate you to shew me the lyke touching Rapier and Dagger.

V. That which I have heretofore shewed you, is but small in regarde of that I meane to teach you hereafter, so that having delivered you the manner of the single Rapier, you may the better concieve my discourse of the Rapier and Dagger, because it serveth much to the use thereof, and it shall not be necessary wholye to repeate the same, but I will onelye shewe you how to put your selfe in garde with your Rapier and Dagger, for if I desire to make a good scholler, I would my self put his Rapier in one hand, and his Dagger in the other, and so place his body in the same sorte, that I have before spoken of in the single Rapier, setting his right foot formost, with the point of his Rapier drawne in short, and the Dagger helde out at length, bending a little his right knee, with the heele of his right foote directly against the midst of the lefte, causing him to goe round toward the left side of his adversary in a good measure, that he may take his advantage, and then I would thrust a stoccata to his bellye beneath his dagger, removing my right foote a little toward his left side.

L. And what must your scholler doe the whilste?

V. The scholler must break it downward, with the point of his Dagger toward his left side, and then put a stoccata to my belly beneath my Dagger, in which time I breaking it with the pointe of my Dagger, goe a little aside toward his lefte hand, and make an imbroccata above his Dagger, and the scholler shall breake the imbroccata with his Dagger upward, parting circularely with his right foote toward my lefte side, and so thrust unto mee an imbroccata above my Dagger, in which time with the pointe of my Dagger, I will beate it outward toward my lefte side, and answere h im with a stoccata in the bellye under his Dagger, parting circularely with my right foote toward his left side: and in the same time he must answere me with the like under my Dagger, breaking my stoccata outward toward his lefte side, stepping toward my lefte side with his right foote, at which time I must moove with my bodye to save my face, and breake his poynte toward my right side, answering him with a riversa to the head, and so retire with my right foote, at which time he must come forward with his left foote in the place of my right, and his Dagger high and straite, turning his swoorde hand, so that his poynte may goe directlye to my bellye, and he must take the riversa on his sworde and Dagger.

L. But is it not better for the scholler to holde his Dagger with the point upward, as I have seene many doe to defend a riversa?

V. He that holdeth the point upward, is ever in danger to be hurt on the head, or to receive a fincture in the bellye or in the face, and likewise he is in jeoperdye to be hurt with a Stramazone, betweene the Rapier and the Dagger, because he closeth not his weapons: therefore remember well how to carrye your Dagger, and by exercise you shall see the Dagger, for there are many that breake the stoccata inward.

IMAGE:  Two duelists on guard in the first ward of rapier and dagger.

L. Why then do you never breake anie thrust inward?

V. All stoccataes comming under the Dagger, & imbroccataes above the Dagger, are to bee beaten outward toward the lefte side, but an imbrocata by a riversa either in the belly or in the face, should be broken inward toward the right side, with a little retiring of the bodie, which must be answered with a riversa well followed, in which instant the scholler must passe forward with his lefte foote, then will I retire wyth my left foote behinde my right, and yeelding backe with my bodie, I will beate the point of his swoorde with my dagger toward my lefte side, and so make a direct thrust to his head: then the scholler must step with his right foote in the place of my lefte, carrying his Dagger not too high, but so that his arme and his Dagger be held straight out, to receive a blow if it be offered, and then he shall thrust a stoccata to my belly, which I will beat toward my left side, and make an imbrocata above his Dagger, stepping with my right foote toward his left side, then must he beate my imbrocata toward his lefte side, parting with his right foot on my left side, and so make an imbrocata above my Dagger, then I parting with my right foot on his lefte side, will beate his imbrocata towarde my lefte side, and make a blow to his head: in which time hee must do the halfe incartata, that is, he must bee readie while I lift up my hand, to but a stoccata to my belly, bearing out wel his dagger to receive the blow, turning sodainly his body on the left side, so that the heel of his right foot be just against the middle of his left, and this is the true half incartata.

L. I pray you why do you make your schollers use so many stoccataes and imbrocataes?

V. To make my schollers apt and readie with rapier, dagger, and foot, that they may accompany one another in one instant, whereof there is great use in fight. But one that would teach these principles and cannot plaie with his body, putteth himselfe in great danger to be hit on the face, especially if the scholler be anie thing readie, and thrust a long stoccata, for if the scholler answere readily, his dagger cannot save him. Therefore hee that wil exercise these rudiments must have a very apt and well framed body, so that if you desire to bee made readye and perfect, practise these principles, learning well the time and measure, and therby you shall open your spirites in the knowledge of the secrets of armes: neither do as many do, who when they are to fight, playe like children that runne to learne their lessons when they should repeat them, therefore learne, that in time of peace you may use it for a good exercise of the bodye, and in time of warre you may knowe how to defend your selfe against your enemies: and do not as many, that when they have just occasion to fight, withdraw themselves, despising knowledge and vertue, not considering that almost every little prick killeth a man, and I have seen which thorough a foolish conceite of their owne abilitie, have been wounded and slaine: therfore if you will prevent the fury of such, you must be well practised in your weapons.

L. As farre as I can percieve, the rules of the single rapier, and of Rapier and Dagger, are al one, and I see well, that to learne first the Rapier alone, is very necessary to bring the body, hand, and weapon to be readye together in one instant, but one difference I finde betweene the single Rapier and the other, because in managing the Rapier alone, you cause the scholler to hold his left hand shorte, and in the other to holde out his hand and Dagger as straight as hee may, whereof I would gladly know the reason.

V. At the single Rapier if you holde foorth your lefte hand at length, your enemye maye wound you thereon, because you are not so well garded as if you withdrew it shorter, neither so readye to put by the swoorde of your adversarye as with a Dagger, and therefore remember this well.

L. I see it standeth with good reason, but I praie you shew how I must assault mine enemie in fights or how being assaulted by him, I must defend my selfe.

V. There are many that when they come to fight, runne on headlong without discretion, because finding themselves injured, they holde it their partes to assault first.

L. Why? is it not the challengers parte to bee the first assaulter?

V. Yes, if you finde time and opportunitie, for (I pray) tell me why goe you to fight?

L. To defend mine honour and maintaine my right.

V. What is to defend your reputation, but so to hurt your enemye, as your selfe may escape free? for when you goe to fight, put on this resolution, either to take away his life, or to cause him to acknowledge his faulte, with seeking pardon for the same, which is more honorable then a bloody victory: neither do like children, which in their wanton fighting stand farre a sunder, and make semblance to beate one another: therefore note it well, for if your adversary be a man of judgement and valour, and you be the first in offering, you bring your lyfe in jeopardye: for either of you being within distance observing time, the first offerer is in danger to be slain or wounded in the counter time, especially if he thrust resolutelye: but if you be skilfull and not the other, then may you gain time and measure, and so hit him, saving your selfe, & then the more furiouslie your enemie commeth on, the more he runneth headlong upon his owne danger. Some are of opinion that they can hit him that shall hit them first, but such as have never fought: or if by chance in one fight they have beene so fortunate, let them not thinke that Summer is come because one swallow is seene. Mee thinketh more commendable for a man to defend himselfe, and not offend his enemie, than to hurt his enemie and bee wounded imselfe, for when you shall perceive the danger that insueth by every assault without time and measure, you wil change your opinion: and some others there are that hold it a shame for a man to retire.

L. In deede it is accounted disgracefull to give ground, because therein a man seemeth to feare his enemie.

V. There is difference betweene retiring orderly and running backward, for to hit and retire is not discommendable, though the other be shamefull, & hee that holdes the contrarie, understandeth little the danger of weapons.

L. And I praie you what good doth retiring?

V. If you be assaulted on the sodain, your enemy having gained time and measure, so that you are in evident danger to bee slaine, had you rather die than retire a foot?

L. Some are resolute rather to die than yeelde an inch.

V. But if such knew they should be slaine, & that so small a matter would save their lives, I doubt not but they would retire with both feete rather than faile. Many talke as they have heard, and not as they know: whereupon I will recite a Combate perfourmed by a great Captaine called Signior Ascanio della Cornia.

L. Truly I have heard of one such, but I know not whether it were he that was a master of the Campe in that great armie of Don John d'Austria against the Turke.

V. He was the very same, but to come to the matter touching the opinion of the ignorant: this Captaine being entred the listes against his adversarie in the presence of many Princes and great men (which listes environing the circuit appointed for the Combate, and being touched nu eotjer pf them, the same person is helde vanquished, as if he had beene driven out) was very furiouslye charged by his enemie, and fought at the first onely to save himselfe by retiring, which the other perceiving, began to scoffe at him, bidding him beware of the listes, wherewithall the Captaine espying advantage, made a resolute stoccata cleane through his bodye, and so slew him, now whether of these think you wonne most honour?

L. In my judgement Ascanio, who entertained the furie of his adversarye, till in discretion hee found oportunitie to execute his purpose.

V. I am glad to heare you of that opinion, for wee see the like in martiall policye, where oftentimes retraites are made of purpose to drawe the enemye either into some imboscata or place of advantage, and such as are most insolent and presumptuous, are easiest drawne into those plots, who runne headlong on their death like beastes. In like sorte, hee that understandeth the true use of his weapons, wil suffer his adversarye in his rashnes, untill he finde time and advantage safely to annoy him. And sithens I have begun to speake of combates, I wil recite one other perfourmed in Piemont, in the time of Charles the 5, betweene two Italians, and two Spaniards, as I have heard it delivered by divers Gentlemen present at the action. A Spanish Captaine, more brave in shew than valorous in deede, to insinuate himselfe with the Emperour, began in scornfull sorte to find fault with other nations, and among the rest, with Italians, where the Spaniard had never had foote of ground, if the Italians themselves had not been made instruments of their owne conqueste: but to let that passe, this Spaniard having in woords disgraced the Italian nation, it came to the Italians eares, whereupon two Italians, the one of Padua, and the other of Vicenza, wrote a cartell unto the Spaniard, which was carried by him of Vicenza, who finding the Spaniard accompanied with divers Gentlemen, delivered him the cartell, which he received, saying that hee would go to his Chamber and read it, whereunto the Vicentine replyed, that he should read it ere hee departed, and that it was a cartel. Which the Spaniard having read in presence of the whole companye, asked the Vicentine whether he or his fellow would maintaine the cartell, to whome the Vicentine answered, that the woords repeated in the cartell was a lye, and that hee was present to avouch it: wherewithall he offered to draw foorth his sworde, and so the Spaniard and his companion accepted the combat against the two Italians, of which matter the Emperour having advertisement, conceived displeasure against the presumption of the Spaniard, and so, place of combate was prepared in presence of many great personages: the combatters being entered in the listes, one of the Italians (who were both in their shirts onely) rent of the lefte sleeve of his shirt, which the Spaniard beholding, saide hee needed not take so muche paine, for he meant to have cut of his arm sleeve and all: to whom the Padouan replyed, that he meant to have cut of the Spaniards head firste, and therefore prepared his arme for the purpose, wherewithall they encountered all very furiouslye, so that the Vicentine was first wounded, who crying out to his fellow that he was hurt, the Padouan comforted him with hope of better successe to come, and began warely to keep his garde, but the Spaniards presuming on the victorie, charged them so much the harder without regarde, till at length the Padouan finding his time, with a resolute stoccata ranne the one through the bodie, and with a sodaine riversa, cut the others neck almost quite in sunder, and so they were both slaine together: I have induced these examples for two causes, the one, for that many contemne this art, and make no account thereof, and the other because there are some so insolent, as they seek nothing but to sowe discension between frendes and allies, which if they restrained, it might save the lives of many men: for as wee see in the last example, there wanted not much to have caused a generall mutiny between the Spaniard & the Italian, through the insolencie of the Spaniard, if the Emperour had not drawne the matter to a shorter triall, by forbidding any one to offer the first blow amongst them, upon paine of death: pronouncing the Italians victors, that had acquited themselves in so honourable sorte. Therefore you may see how dangerous the company of these quarrelsome persons is, who doe lesse harme with their swordes then with their tungs: for as the Italian proverbe is, La lingua non ha offo, ma fa rompere il doffo, that is, the tung hath no bones, and het it breaketh the backe: ill tunges are occasions of much debate. But to returne from whence I have digressed, you must never be too rash in fight, account of your enemye,yet feare him not, and seeke all meanes to become victor, and so you shall maintaine your reputation, and not endanger your selfe in unadvised hastines.

L. I have taken great pleasure in these discourses, which in my opinion importe very much the knowledge of Gentlemen, and truely the Spaniards were justly punished for their pride, in scorning other nations: you shall see manye of that humour, that will blame other nations, who deserve to be rejected out of all civile company: for if one man have a faulte, his whole countrie is not straight to bee condemned thereof. But shew me I beseech you, how I must behave my selfe when I am to fight, you have already taught mee the time, measure, and motion of my body, and now I would learne something of resolution.

V. Having taken weapons in hand, you must shewe boldnes and resolution against your enimy, and be sure to put your selfe well in gard, seeking the advantage of your enemie, and leape not up and downe. And beware in charging your enemie you goe not leaping, if you be farre off, but when you approch, gard your selfe well, for everie little disorder giveth advantage to your adversarie, therefore learne to knowe advantages, and thrust not at your enemie untill you bee sure to hit, and when you have given measure, not when it is time to thrust: then finding your enemie out of garde, make a stoccata resolutely, or else not at all: for although you be in time and measure, and yet your enemie bee well garded, he may verie easily hurt you though his skill be but small. As may be seene in many, which altogether ignorant in the use of weapons, will naturally put them selves in some gard, so that if one looke not well about him, he shal be much endangered by such a one, not because he knoweth what he doth, but by reason that not foreseeing the danger, hee followeth his purpose wyth resolution, without being able to yeelde a cause for that he hath done. Therefore (I saie) you must seeke to gain not measure onely, but time and opportunitie as wel to save your selfe as anie your enemie, if you will do well, & then if it happen not well unto you, thinke that God doth punish you for your sinnes: for wee see often that at some one time a man will doo excellent well, & yet afterward he shall seeme as though he had never taken weapons in hand. And to make it the more apparant: There was a souldier in Provence for his valor in many exploites before shewed, generally reputed a verie gallant man, who on a time being in a town besieged, was so suddenlye stricken with the terrour of the batterie, and dismaide therewith, that hee could no longer refraine from seeking some cave to hide himselfe: who afterward taking hart agresse, came foorth againe, and beeing demaunded of the Captaines where hee had been, who told them the truth of the whole matter, and afterward behaved himselfe very valiantly.

In like sorte Marco Querini a gentleman of Venice, Captaine of the Gallies belonging to the signorye of Venice, in the sea Adriaticum, living delicatelye in all carelessnes, suffered the Turkes to run over the gulfe, spoyling and robbing at their pleasure, not daring to make resistance, which the Generall of the Signory understanding, repaired thither with all expedition, thretning Querini Captaine of the gulfe, if hee perfourmed his office no better, the whole shipping should be taken from him, & he sent home to Venice on foot. The shame whereof moved him so farre, that afterward hee became famous for his exploites.

Moreover in the time of the Venecians warres with the Turke, the Generall of the Turkish forces beeing come into the Sea Adriaticke, neere unto Schiavonia, Allibassa & Carracossa, who afterward died in the battaile of Pautou, would needs invade the Isle Cursolla with some forces, and batter a towne there, where the men dismaied with the soddainnes of the attempt, betooke themselves to flight, and left the place to the defence of the women, who quitted themselves with such undaunted courage, that one of them betaking her self to a peece of artillerie, plaied the gunner so artificiallie, that she directed a shot cleane through the ship where Allibassa was, much sopyling the same, which hee perceiving, presently commaunded the ancker to be waied, and hoising up sailes, retired all his forces, by which meanes the women saved the cittie: so that heerin we see the difference of mens dispositions in courage at divers times, and yet I commend it not in any man to want valour at any time. But to come to the purpose, albeit one be not so well disposed to the managing of weapons at one time, as at some other, yet having the practise and understanding thereof, he shall ever be sufficient to maintaine his parte.

L. It may well be that you have saide, and I think that hee that hath the perfect use of his weapons, may very well defend himselfe against any man, though hee finde his body but ill disposed: but seeing you have begun to discourse of time, I pray you teach mee something concerning the difference of time.

V. You know what I have saide concerning the same, in my discourse of the single Rapier, and in like sorte I must instruct with Rapier and dagger: therefore you must at the first charge your enemye, and having gotten advantage of ground on the lefte side, you must make a stoccata under his dagger, if he hold it too high, retiring immediately a little with your lefte foote, accompanied with your right, but finding his dagger low you must make a fincture underneath, and thrust above his dagger, & that is the just time, in doing whereof you must remember to carry your right foote a little aside, following with the left toward the left part of your adversary, and if he offer you either stocata or imbrocata, you may answer him with a half incartata, turning your hand as in doing the stoccata: or otherwise if hee beare his dagger low, you may thrust to his face, which is les danger for you, because everye little blowe in the face staieth the furie of a man more than anie other place of his body, for being through the bodie, it happeneth often times that the same man killeth his enimy notwithstanding in the fury of his resolution: but the bloud that runneth about the face, dismaieth a man either by stopping his breath, or hindering his fight: and he shall oftner find advantage to hit in the face than in the belly if he lie open with his weapons: but marke wel how he carrieth his rapier, if long & straight with his Dagger aloft, you must charge him lowe on your right foot, and having gained measure, beate downe the pointe of his sword with your dagger, and make a stoccata under his dagger without retiring, but beware that in breaking his point you put not down his dagger arme, but hold it firme, neither draw it in, least your enemie hit you on the face, or give you an mibrocata above your dagger: but bearing your dagger firme and straight, if your enemie should answere your stoccata, he might be in daunger to receive a thrust. If your enemie carrie his sword short, in an open ward, you maie come straight on him and give him a punta riversa either in the belly or face, with such readines, that your sword be halfe within his dagger before hee can breake it, turning nimblye your hand toward your left side, so that in offering to breake he shall make himselfe be hit jeither in the face or in the belly: and forget not to retire an half pace with the right foot, accompanied with the left.

Moreover, if your enimie lie with his sword alofte, and the point downwards, you maie charge him foure waies, first on the right side, closing your weapons in a lowe gard, and your right foot within the right foot of your enimie toward his left side, and then being within distance, give him a stoccata, sudenly drawing home your point againe, or you may play with your bodie, but hold your dagger firm, marking (as it were) with one eye the motion of your adversarie, and with the other the advantage of thrusting.

Secondly, you may make a stoccata to his bellye, not resolutely, but to cause him to answere you, and then you must playe with your bodye toward your lefte side, and bearing the thrust on your right side, passe a little on his right side, and make a riversa above his sworde.

Thirdly, you may come upon his point with your dagger, closing well your weapons, and then beating away his point with your dagger, in the same instant put a stoccata either to his face or bellye, but in anye case stirre not your dagger arme, least hee falsifie and give you an imbroccata above the dagger: therefore remember to beare your arme straite, and only your wrist higher or lower.

Fourthly, you may charge him on the right side in the same warde, but contrariwise, for where before you bent your body on the right side, you must now turne on the left, so that his pointe may still be without your body, and hold your dagger at length, then being within measure, you may suddenly passe with your left foot, carrying the point of your dagger upward, and turne your point under his Rapier, that it goe directly to his belly, in manner of an imbroccata, in doing whereof you must turne your body well, lifting up your sworde hand, and with your Rapier and Dagger, assure your selfe of his, otherwise your weapons lying open, if your enemye bee skilfull, and know how to turn his hand, hee might hit you either in the bellye or face with a riversa, or cut you on the head, for every disorder endangereth a mans life.

Furthermore, if your enemy carry his sword low, charge him directly, turning your body on the right side, with your dagger at length, the pointe hanging something toward the ground, and then as you finde his dagger, so make your thrust: if high, to his belly, if lowe, to his face: if his head be above, put a stoccata to his face by a traversa (as it were) under his dagger, and forget not to retire withall with your right foot: and if hee hold out his sword with the pointe upward when you are toward his right side, you put your self in the ward aforesaid, bending your body on your lefte side, and so gaining ground, make a stoccata under his sworde, so that your dagger be under his rapier, and keepe it without your bodye from your left side, and your point in his belly and remember alwaies that in taking your enemies pointe, you stir not your dagger arme, because hee may then endanger y ou, as I have before said. Moreover, if your enemie put himselfe in the same gard, with his rapier at length, and you in your gard with your right foot formost and your point held short, so that your right foot be opposite to his, you shall little and little steale ground with your right foote, and followe with the left, till you are within distance, and then with agilitie thrust either to his belly or face: and this is a notable thing if it bee well understoode, for beside the knowledg it requireth practise, that you learne not to approche neerer to yoru enemy then you may save your self: otherwise you may charge him on the right side, bending your body to the left side, and then having gotten the advantage, you must suddenly passe with your left foote, turning withall your pointe under his sword, that it ascend to his bellye, and clap your dagger as neere as you can to the hiltes of his swoorde, all which together with the motion of the body, must be done at one instant. I shall not need to discourse much of your enemies holding of his dagger, but as your enemy carrieth it, either high or low, so (I say) you must with discretion thrust either to his face or belly: but you must bee verye well exercised in these passataes, for perfourming them with quicknes of the bodye, albeit you happen to faile of your purpose, yet your enemie shal be able to take no advantage therof, but you shal be ready to anoy him stil either above or beneath, wherein you must followe him in moving his body: so shall you stil holde your advantage, and hit him where you will, & if he thrust again, you shall break toward your right side, and reply with a riversa to the face. Againe if your enemie beare his rapier long and straight, you may charge him, and beating away his sworde with your owne, sudenly turn in your point to his face or belly, which is a verie good thrust, being done with great agilitie.

If you percieve your enemies rapier farre out, & that he go about to falsifie upon you either above or underneath your dagger, then put your selfe in your ward, with your weapons close together, and as low as you may, holding firme your dagger hande, and whatsoever falsifieng he maketh, never move awaie your Dagger hande, neither lifte it high or lowe to get your enemies Rapier, and if you lye belowe in the ward when he falsifieth, remaine so without styrring any higher, (for otherwise hee might at that time finde fit opportunitie to hit you, if he be skilfull in wepons) but follow him close, for if he once thrust resolutely, be it above or beneath, he must needs lose his whole Rapier, and you may easily hit him, and in your thrusting stand firme with your body and dagger. Also if he holde his dagger straight upward, and that the point of his rapier be at the hiltes of his dagger, as you shall finde occasion, so doe, that is, if his dagger hand be high, thrust a stoccata to him under his dagger: if lowe, make a stoccata to his face, either close by the hand, or by the middest of his arme, and if you will thrust as you are in your warde you may, or else with retiring. Moreover, if your enemie turne his dagger point toward his right side, charge him on that side, with a punta riversa to his face, remaining in your warde, or retiring as you please. Againe, if he lying in that warde, carry his point out of the ward of your dagger any whit a little too high, charge him close, and holding forth your Dagger, you may suddenly take his point with your Dagger, or if you will you may by removing the right foote a little forward, give him a stoccata, but keepe stedfast your dagger hand, as I taught you before, least otherwise he make an imbroccata to your face. Againe, if he carrye his point any whit too much toward your right side, turn your body on your left side, in a good ward, charging him on the right side, and bring your right foote cleane without his right foot, and having so doone, thrust your rapier under his about the middle, and so make a passata upon him, or you may charge with a riversa to his throte, or such like, either abiding in your warde, or suddenlye scaping away with your body. If you percieve he holde his rapier farre out, and not turned, charge him below, turning your body on the right side, and turne your dagger point somewhat lowe upon your enemies point, and having gotten this advantage, being within measure, thrust either to his bellye or face, as you shall best see cause.

L. I finde now that after a man hath the arte, hee must also have great exercise and practise to bring his bodie to a true frame. But as you have hetherto shewed me to charge mine enemie in due time, so now I praie you to teach me to defend my selfe when my enemie chargeth me.

V. If your enemie charge you, and ahve gotten anie advantage of you either with his foot, or turning of the bodie, or rapier, or dagger, or by what meanes soever, seeke to put your selfe in a sure warde, and retire a little, keeping your selfe still in gard, least else by retiring, if you move up your bodie or dagger, your enemy might by dexteritie and quicknes offend you greatly: but whilest hee chargeth you, cover to turne your bodie on one side or other, as you find the point of your enemies rapier, and even at that instant that he moveth his foot in charging you, as you finde him open in any place, so seeke to offend him, and beware (as I sayd before) in what sort you retire, for sometime there is a fit time, when you thrust to retire, and some times not, therefore take diligent heed thereunto.

Moreover, when he hath gotten advantage, being in his ward, if he would thrust a stoccata to you under you dagger, you shall be nimble to avoide it by turning your daggers point downward, & you shall answere him with a stoccata, or imbrocata, or punta riversa, as you shall finde opportunitie: but if he make an imbrocata above your dagger, you may avoide it by lifting up a little the point of your dagger, and by turning the wrist of your hand to the left side, for that his imbrocata shall go cleane without your left side, & you may make a thrust to him, as you shall finde him open in anie place. Againe, if hee make an imbrocata to your bodie, you may give backe a little with your bodie, and beat it awaie with your right side, & may make to him a punta riversa to his bodie or face: likewise if he be towards your right side, & thrust at your face, you may yet beat it awaie, & answere him with a punta riversa or a passata. Againe, if he make an imbrocata above your dagger, beware that your rapiers point be within his, and make unto him a meza-incartata, turning the pointe either to the belly, face, or throate: but you must with greate agilitie turne your point & bodie on your right side. Againe, if he make a blow to your head, at the instant that he moveth his hand make you sodainly a stoccata unto him, and (if you be in a good ward) you may make a punta riversa to his thigh, but if he make a blow to your leg, stand fast in your warde with your bodie farre out, and in his thrusting come forwarde with your right foote, whereby you shal cause him to leese the greatest part of his rapier, and turne your dagger point low, receiving the blow on the same, and you may make unto him either a stoccata to the face, or a riversa to his necke or arme. Again, when he thrusteth to your leg, remove your right foote to your right side, as it were making a circle, & so offend your enimy: as if he make a riversa to the head, you may take it upon your rapier & dagger, passing with your left foot, turning your rapier hand & making a stoccata: and if you will you may by passing receive the riversa upon your dagger onely, but looke you carrie your dagger point aloft, as I have told you before. Againe, if hee make the riversa to your leg, you may sodeinly passe with your left foot to his right, & take the riversa on your dagger, for thereby you get the strength of his rapier, and are master of it, and may easily strike him. Again, if he make anie violent blow at your head, retire a little on your lefte side, & receive it with your rapiers point, passing with your left foote, & turning your point to his face, & clapping your dagger on his rapier: all other blows and riversaes you may easily receive on your dagger, but it behoveth you to receive them with the point of your rapier, otherwise your enemie might thrust his rapier between your rapier & dagger especially if he cast his hande upward and his pointe downward, therefore take heed how you thrust, for these are all good times. If your enemie come furiouslie upon you to assault you, keep you still in your gard, and in his comming neere to you, thrust at him, for he is neither in ward nor yet standeth firme, and the more resolutely he commeth upon you, the more he is in danger, and the woorse it is for him, because he may easily with a little bricke bee slaine: but courage joyned with skill and knowledge is verie good.

Againe, if a tall man should assault a little man, this ward is exceeding good for the tal man, because if he charge the other, & the tall man thrust, being within rech, he loseth his point, & the little man may give him a stoccata, or make a passata at him, but if the tall man know how to put himself in ward & thrust, he might have great advauntage by the length of his reach, in thrusting a stoccata, and retiring with his bodie. Againe, if your enemie woulde make a passata on you with his left foote, when you finde him to remove, & woulde beate your weapons awaie with his dagger, move your right foote a little backward, and sodeinly turne your point over his dagger, and make an imbrocata to him, for in his passing he looseth his dagger, and whilest he passeth, you may retire a little into your ward, and make a stoccata to his face, and suche like, whereof I cannot now stand to write.