The easiest way to do this is from the installation program. You
can start the installation program by running
/stand/sysinstall as root.
Alternatively, if you still have the install floppy, you can just reboot from that and use the partition & label editors while the system is totally quiescent.
If the above does not work for you, or if you're a total masochist who likes arcane interfaces, this is how to use disklabel(8) manually:
WARNING: There is no substitute for reading carefully & understanding what you are doing! Things described here may DESTROY your system. Proceed with caution! Remember, a BACKUP is your friend!
sysinstall used to be broken up to 2.1.5-RELEASE and will
insist on mounting something at / in the disklabel editor. You will
have to manually run
disklabel(8) before you can run
newfs(8). This means doing the math for partitions
yourself. This is rumoured to be easy :-) See if you can obtain a
skeletal label with ''
disklabel -r <diskname>''
disklabel -r /dev/rwd0s2'', assuming
that your new disk is wd0, the first IDE drive, and the FreeBSD
slice is the second one, s2). You should see something
# /dev/rwd0s2: type: ESDI disk: wd0s2 label: flags: bytes/sector: 512 sectors/track: 63 tracks/cylinder: 64 sectors/cylinder: 4032 cylinders: 610 sectors/unit: 2459520 rpm: 3600 interleave: 1 trackskew: 0 cylinderskew: 0 headswitch: 0 # milliseconds track-to-track seek: 0 # milliseconds drivedata: 0 8 partitions: # size offset fstype [fsize bsize bps/cpg] c: 2459520 0 unused 0 0 # (Cyl. 0 - 609) e: 2459520 0 4.2BSD 0 0 0 # (Cyl. 0 - 609)
Make sure that the size is correct, in this case, 2459520
sectors/unit x 512 bytes/sector / 2**20 (1 Megabyte) = 1200
Megabytes. The rest of the stuff (b/s, t/c, s/c, interleave, etc.)
should get suitable defaults from
disklabel, but see
this note for older disks. 'fsize' is the
Fragment size for the filesystem,
and 'bsize' is the
Block size. 'c' is
the partition covering the entire slice (or entire disk for a
non-sliced disk), and must remain as it is. It should not be
used for a filesystem. The 'c' partition is magic in that it
is faked by the kernel even if no disklabel exists.
In the trivial case, where you want a single filesystem spanning the whole slice, the entry for 'e' has to be corrected. Setting fsize to 1024 and bsize to 8192 (8 fragments/block), which are reasonable values for a filesystem, the correct entry for 'e' would be:-
e: 2459520 0 4.2BSD 1024 8192
Now, the (slightly) harder case, where we want 2 partitions for 2
filesystems. Following the
BSD naming conventions, the partitions will be
wd0s2f. Suppose we split up the 1200 MB into 300 MB for
'e' and the remaining 900 MB for 'f'. The partition entries would
8 partitions: # size offset fstype [fsize bsize bps/cpg] c: 2459520 0 unused 0 0 # (Cyl. 0 - 609) e: 614400 0 4.2BSD 1024 8192 f: 1843200 614400 4.2BSD 1024 8192
Note: You can directly edit the disklabel with
disklabel -e wd0s2''. See
If you have at least FreeBSD 2.1.5, and you want to dedicate an entire disk to FreeBSD without any care for other systems, you might shorten the steps above to something like:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd0 count=100 # disklabel -Brw wd0 auto # disklabel -e wd0
dd command ensures there is no old junk at
the beginning of the disk that might confuse the disk code
in the kernel. Following is an automatic skeleton label
generation using the defaults that have been probed from the
disk at boot time. Editing this label continues as described
You're done! Time to initialise the filesystems with something like:-
newfs -d0 /dev/rwd0s2e newfs -d0 /dev/rwd0s2f
Depending on the disk name and slice number, it might be
required that you run the script
before in order to create the desired device nodes.
And mount your new filesystems (See
mount /dev/wd0s2e /mnt/foo mount /dev/wd0s2f /mnt/bar
You may wish to edit
/etc/fstab to automatically mount
the filesystems at boot time.
The basic unit of storage for
M. McKusick, W. Joy, S. Leffler, and R. Fabry,
"A Fast File System for UNIX",
ACM Transactions on Computer Systems 2, 3, pp 181-197, August
1984, (reprinted in the BSD System Manager's Manual, SMM:5) or
on your system.
A block comprises one or more fragments. See the reference above and <sys/disklabel.h>
You may need to provide more information to
if you happen to own a ``true disk'', i.e. one with a
uniform geometry, real heads, sectors, and cylinders,
such as an old ESDI drive. All of this should be easily
obtainable from the drive case, owner's manual, fellow
sufferers, etc. :-)
Partition 'a' is by convention reserved for a bootable partition, and partition 'b' for swap space. Regular partition names should start with 'd'. ('d' used to be magic in 386BSD 0.1 through FreeBSD 2.0, thus partition 'e' is often used for the first non-bootable partition containing a filesystem.)
The space required by the BSD partition table is allowed for in the file system. It's not allowed for by the swap partition. So don't start swap at cylinder 0, either offset it or put a file system in partition 'a'.