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Misc.kids Frequently Asked Questions:
Allergies and Asthma

Recipes

Revision 1.5


This FAQ is intended to answer frequently asked questions on allergies and asthma in the misc.kids newsgroup. Though the comments are geared towards parents of children, there is plenty of information for adults as well. Before reading the FAQ, please read the disclaimer.

To contribute to this collection, please send e-mail to the address given below, and ask me to add your comments to the FAQ file on Allergies and Asthma. Please try to be as concise as possible, as these FAQ files tend to be quite long as it is. And, unless otherwise requested, your name and e-mail address will remain in the file, so that interested readers may follow-up directly for more information/discussion.

This FAQ is posted regularly to news.answers and misc.kids.info.

For a list of other misc.kids FAQ topics, look for the FAQ File Index posted to misc.kids.info or tune in to misc.kids.

Collection maintained by Eileen Kupstas Soo (kupstas@cs.unc.edu)

There are many contributors involved in this FAQ.. many thanks for all the work!

© 1996-2007 Eileen Kupstas Soo

This page (http://www.cs.unc.edu/~kupstas/FAQ_recipes.html) last modified: February 12, 2001


Recipes that come from reviewed books are now linked to the reviews.

Recipe Index:

0) Disclaimer

Overview:

Wheat/Gluten Free

Milk/Egg Free

Soy Free

Measurement Conversion Information for non-US folk


Wheat/Gluten Free

Bread, Muffins, and Pancakes
Cakes, Cookies, and Other Desserts
Other web sites for Gluten Free recipes

Milk/Egg Free

Milk Substitutes

See also Milk Substitutes made from Sprouted Oats.

Main Dishes
Cakes, Cookies, and Other Desserts
See also:
Other web sites for Milk/Egg Free recipes

Soy Free

TBD — contributions?

See also:
Other web sites for Soy Free recipes

TBD — pointers? suggestions?


Measurement Conversion Information for non-US folk

Other Recipe Web Sites


Wheat/Gluten Free

Baking Powder Biscuits #2

[adapted from The Allergy Cookbook and Food Buying Guide by Pamela Nonken and S. Roger Hirsch, M.D.]

5/8 cup potato-starch flour
2 teaspoons baking powder (corn free, if required)
1/4 teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons butter*
1/4 cup milk

*Butter is best, since most of the taste comes from it, but you can substitute margarine if necessary.

In a medium mixing bowl, sift together potato-starch flour, baking powder, and salt. Cut in butter until all butter is evenly combined with flour. Stir in milk to make a soft dough [start a little under the required amount, then add as needed —ek]. Ro und up on lightly floured (with potato-starch flour) board. Knead lightly. Roll out about 1/2 inch thick. Cut and place on ungreased baking sheet.

Bake in 500 (F) [yes, five hundred] oven for 8 to 10 minutes, until golden brown. I like these better at the lighter stage of brown than darker brown. Serve hot, but these will keep for a day or so.

About 8 biscuits.

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Bette Hagman's Gluten Free Bread

From: Kate Gregory

Everyone who is allergic to wheat or gluten should own a copy of The Gluten-Free Gourmet: Living Well without Wheat. My copy was $18 Canadian. This book has over 200 wheat free recipes for bread, cookies, pizza, chicken pot pie, you name it. It is also full of advice about adapting existing recipes and where to get substitutes.

The bread recipe in this book is great but the dough is too sticky to be kneaded by hand. So my husband adapted her recipe to work in a breadmaker. We have made this in our Pansonic many times; it tastes like bread, it is nice and soft. It toasts beautifully but unlike many rice breads is edible untoasted.

2 cups GF flour (see below)
3 tbsp sugar
2 tsp xanthan gum (see below)
1 cup milk, warmed for 1 min in microwave (use lactose treated if you need to)
1 tsp salt
1.5 tsp yeast
2 tbsp oil (or use butter, just barely melted in the microwave)
2 eggs
1 tsp vinegar

Put these ingredients into your breadmaker in whatever order it requires them and bake like any other white loaf.

The GF flour is a flour substitute Hagman recommends. You make it like this:

2 parts white rice flour
2/3 part potato starch flour (NOT potato flour)
1/3 part tapioca flour

I make up 3 cups of this into a canister, 2 cups goes for the bread and the other cup stays in the canister for next time. As for the xanthan gum, she talks about this more in the book but it's a way to get the stretchiness that gluten provides. She gives several mail order sources for it in the States; here in Canada my inlaws simply asked their local health food store to get them some and eventually it arrived.

My MIL has been gluten-intolerant for years and has been buying rice bread, corn pasta and the like all that time; now that she has this book she says she feels like a real person again. So many foods she thought she'd never eat again are opened up to her. She writes in the margin when she tries a recipe and every annotation says "good" or "very good"; she has yet to be disappointed. She's also gained weight which her doctor is very pleased about. I can't recommned the book highly enough.

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Blueberry Muffins

[adapted from Going Against the Grain by Phyllis Potts]

contributed by: Tammy Schmidt

2/3 c banana
1 egg
1 cup milk or water
1/3 c oil or shortening
1 tsp soda
3 tsp baking powder
2/3 c rice flour
2/3 c bean flour
2 tsp xanthan gum
2/3 c potato flour or mashed potato
1 c blueberries

Mix the first 4 ingredients, sift dry ingredients and add to the flour mixture. Add blueberries and mix. Fill prepared muffin tins 3/4 full. Bake at 300F for 40 min. Makes one dozen.

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Milk-free and Egg-free Bread

Contributed by Christian Gassler

2 cups of (white) rice flour
1/2 cup of corn flour
1/2 cup of potato starch
1/4 cup of tapioca flour
2 tsps of locust bean flour (carob?)
3/2 tsps of salt (or use less, if you like)
1/3 oz of yeast (or equiv in dry yeast)
3/2 tsps of sugar
2 tbls of (olive) oil
1/2 tbls of (apple) vinegar
lukewarm water

1) I put the yeast and the sugar in a glass measure, that can hold 2 cups or more.

2) I mix all dry ingredients (by hand) in a sufficiently large bowl. I grind my own flours, but you can also use commercially available flours, if you are sure, that they are gf (politely ask your supplier).

3) I butter a spring form (8..10 in diam) and generously dust it with the above dry mix, the flour that does not stick to the form goes back into the bowl.

4) Meanwhile, the yeast and sugar have dissolved, so I add 1 cup of lukewarm water, the oil and vinegar and mix it, until it looks milky. Then I fill up to a level 2 cups and mix again.

5) I mix the dry and wet mixes and stir it with a wooden spoon. This action builds strong arms and hands.

6) depending on the consistency of the dough, I add lukewarm water, until the dough is smooth and just a bit thinner than regular dough.

7) I put the dough into the spring form and put it in the handwarm oven to rise for 40-60 minutes, form covered by damp cloth. (try to keep the cloth away from dough)

8) After rising, I crank up the heat to 220 CELSIUS (430 Farenheit), using both the hot air and infrared heater that my oven supplies. The heat is usually reached after a few minutes. At 220 Celsius, I set the heat back to 200 Celsius (400 F). After 10-15 minutes, I cover the form and bake the bread for a total of 50-70 minutes.

The whole procedure sounds rather annoying, but once you have it in your blood, it is really easy ... BUT depending on the dry ingredients, you have to experiment a little bit with the proportions of dry ingredients and water, maybe also with the ammount of yeast needed. Too much yeast makes the dough go quickly and collapse while baking!

The bread thus created can be used for multiple purposes: Just bread (toasted or not), Pizza (prebake a flat! loaf), Pizza bianca (flat bread with olive oil and salt on top), Pizza bianca with onions (add onion rings on top), and a lot of variations with doughs containing nuts, olives, grilled bacon etc. — do not limit your imagination!

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Oatmeal Breakfast Bars

2 cups rolled oats, uncooked
1 - 1/2 cups oat flour*
1 cup (packed) currants, raisins, chopped prunes, or other dried fruit**
1 cup apple juice, or variations below
1/4 cup white or brown sugar (can be omitted, see variations below)
1/2 tsp. cinnamon, more or less to taste
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 cup vegetable oil
1/4 cup sesame seeds or small nut pieces

Preheat oven to 375 (F). Grease a 9 inch by 13 inch pan, or two 8 inch by 8 inch pans. Combine all ingredients in bowl and mix well. It should be moist enough to form a ball, without extra liquid. Put mixture in prepared pan(s) and spread evenly. Bake for 30 minutes. Remove from oven and cut into squares while still hot. Wait until the bars cool before trying to remove them from the pan.

Variations:
Replace apple juice with 1) orange juice 2) a mixture of 1/4 cup molasses and 3/4 cup water 3) 1/4 cup molasses, 2 tablespoons dark rum or flavoring, enough water to make one cup. If you want to up the molasses a bit, you can omit the sugar in the recipe.

*You can make oat flour by putting rolled oats into a blender or food processor and pulverizing them.

**if the fruit is hard, soak it with a bit of water before adding to the mixture. The fruit doesn't soften much in baking. With variation 3, you can use a bit of rum or other flavoring in the soaking water.

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Chick Pea Flour Pancakes ("Crepes")

[adapted from Madhur Jaffrey's Vegetarian World of the East by Madhur Jaffrey
Alfred A. Knopf 1981, ISBN 0-394-40271-5 or ISBN 0-394-74867-0]

This will produce a thinner "eggy" textured pancake much like a crepe. I prefer a savory treatment, with scallions or other flavoring, but sweet is okay, too. Chutneys and relishes can be used to fill these, or a dipping sauce can be made.

Use a nonstick skillet approximately 8 inches in diameter. Bigger or smaller is ok, but yo u will have to adjust the amount of batter you use to correspond. I prefer a 4 inch pancake for snacking.

In making these, you need to move deliberately and quickly. The first few you make may be a little weird, until you get the hang of it.

1 cup chickpea flour (garbonzo bean flour), firmly packed
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon turmeric (optional)
1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper (optional)
about 1/4 cup vegetable oil

Sift the chickpea flour into a bowl. Slowly add 1 cup of water , two tablespoons or so at a time. Stir well after each addition of water, breaking up the lumps of flour. Once this is smooth, add ano ther 1/2 cup of water to the mixture, and all of the spices. Stir to mix.

Measure out the oil and place in a small cup near where you will be cooking; place a pastry brush, a teaspoon , and a 1/2 cup* measuring cup there, too. (*The size of the cup depends upon the size of the pancake you will be making. Experiment to find out what produces the size you want.) Have a plate for the finished pancakes ready. Each pancake takes between 5 and 8 minutes to cook. If you have two suitable skillets that will make the process much faster.

Brush the skillet with approximately 1 teaspoon of oil. Let the skillet heat on a medium l ow setting until it is hot. Stir the batter and remove approx. 1/2 cup (or whatever your desired measure turns out to be). Pour this into the skillet. Turn and tilt the skillet to spread the batter to the very edges of the pan* (*If you are making a smaller pancake, you can let it move as far as needed to get a thin cake.) Keep doing this until the batter is evenly distributed and has set. Dribble approximately 1 teaspoon of oil around t he edges of the pancake and another teaspoon on top. (Use less if you are making a smaller pancake.) Cover the skillet and let cook for 5 to 8 minutes; it should be slightly crisp at the edges and bottom. Carefully ease a plastic spatula under the pancake, lift it and place on a plate.

These are best eaten immediately, but you can cover the plate of pancakes with an inverted plate and do the remaining pancakes in order to serve them all at once.

Serve with any chutney, dipping sauce, or condiment that strikes you.

Variation: While pancake is cooking place a small amount of chopped green onion on top.

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Cornbread

contributed by Meg Fortino

2 tablespoons bacon grease
2 eggs
1 1/2 cups buttermilk
2 cups self-rising cornmeal (this is corn meal with the
proper proportions of baking soda, baking powder, and salt
already added; you can use regular cornmeal and add the
required other ingredients)

Turn the oven to 425 (F). Put the bacon grease in a 10" iron skillet. Put the skillet into the oven. Meanwhile, combine the eggs and buttermilk. Put the cornmeal into a large bowl. When the bacon grease is melted, pour the grease into the eggs and buttermilk while mixing. Stir the egg/buttermilk/grease mixture into the cornmeal. Pour the cornmeal into the hot skillet and spread it quickly.

Put the skillet into the oven and bake 25 minutes. Immediately remove from the oven and upturn it onto a serving plate.

(If you leave it in the skillet, the good crust gets soggy. I guess if you like gentler cornbread, you can leave it in the skillet. But if you want gentler cornbread, you'll have to put flour in the mix. This is hale-and-hearty cornbread.)

Serve with turnip greens with lots of pot likker and cold buttermilk.

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Golden Cake

contributed by JoAnne McCleeary

I use only Bob's Red Mill Stone Ground White Rice Flour, from Natural Food, Inc. Milwaukie, Oregon 97222. It is the only one that I have been able to get decent results in adapting wheat recipes to rice.

1 cup white rice flour
3/4 cup sugar
3 tsp Rumford baking powder
1 egg
1/4 cup of softened butter, margarine OK but the butter overcomes the flavor of the rice better than margarine.
1/2 cup of milk
1-2 tsp of vanilla extract
1 tsp of real cider vinegar (be sure you don't use distilled vinegar because it may be from a grain that you don't want)

Sift dry ingredients together. Drop in butter, 1/4 cup of milk, vanilla. Beat for 2 minutes. Add the rest of the milk and eggs. Beat 2 minutes more. Turn into a greased 9 or 10 inch round layer cake pan. Bake for about 30 minutes in a 350 degree oven. Cool and turn out on a plate and frost.

Makes 1 layer. Stays very moist. Will taste wonderful if you haven't had cake in a long time. My family can't tell this one is made from rice.

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Hot Fudge Cake

contributed by JoAnne McCleeary
(adapted from Taste of Home magazine)

I use only Bob's Red Mill Stone Ground White Rice Flour, from Natural Food, Inc. Milwaukie, Oregon 97222. It is the only one that I have been able to get decent results in adapting wheat recipes to rice.

1 cup rice flour
3/4 cup white sugar
5 Tbsp baking cocoa, divided in half
4 tsp Rumford baking powder
1/4 tsp salt, Don't try this without the salt
1/2 cup milk
2 Tbsp vegetable oil
1-2 tsp vanilla extract
1 cup packed brown sugar
1-3/4 cup hot water
Whipped Cream or ice cream, optional, but wonderful

In a medium bowl, combine flour, white sugar, 1/2 of the cocoa powder, and the salt. Stir in the milk, oil and vanilla until smooth. Spread in an ungreased 9-inch square baking pan. Combine brown sugar and the other half of the cocoa and sprinkle this over the top of the batter in the cake pan. Pour hot water over all and DO NOT stir. Bake at 350 degrees for 35 to 40 minutes. Serve warm. Top with whipped cream or ice cream if desired.

Yield: 9 servings.

This one is impossible to tell that it's made from rice. I have served it to company with great results.

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Pumpkin Bread

[adapted from Going Against the Grain] by Phyllis Potts

contributed by: Tammy Schmidt

1.5 c bean flour
1.5 c rice flour
1.5 tsp salt
1 tsp ground cinnamon
1 tsp nutmeg
2 tsp baking soda
3 tsp xanthan gum
2 c pureed cooked or canned pumpkin
1 c honey
1 c corn oil (or other vegetable oil)
1/2 c water
4 eggs

Grease and flour 2 loaf pans. Stir together flour, sugar, baking soda, salt and spices. Stir together pumpkin, corn oil and water, add eggs one at a time. Make a well in center of flour mixture, add pumpkin mixture and stir. Pour into prepared pans and bake for 1 hour at 325F

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Rice Flour Pancakes 1

from Eileen Kupstas Soo (kupstas@cs.unc.edu)

[Adapted from The Joy of Cooking, c. 1967]

Mix then sift:

2 cups rice flour
4 1/2 tsp. double acting baking powder
2 tsp. maple sugar or other sweetener
2 tsp. salt

Beat the mixture while adding:

2 cups milk or milk substitute

Add and barely blend:

1 beaten egg or egg substitute (though be careful — a good binder is needed)
1 tbls. melted butter or margerine

Proceed as for standard pancakes. You may need to be generous when greasing the pan.

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Rice Flour Pancakes 2

contributed by JoAnn McCleeary

1 cup of rice flour
1 tsp of Rumford Baking Powder
1 whole egg
1 Tbls oil
1/2 cup milk
1 Tbls vinegar

Heat electric griddle to about 400 degrees (hot). Mix batter well. Bake on one side til bubbly and then flip. These are very moist and stay fresh in the refrigerator for a week or so. They make great sandwiches, pizza crusts, or breakfasts.


Rice/Potato Donuts

contributed by JoAnn McCleeary

1 c. cold mashed potatoes
3 c. rice flour (white, regular grind which is finer than the brown rice
flour found in health food stores)
1/2 c. cornstarch or soy milk powder (not soy bean powder)
1 c. sugar
5 1/2 tsp. Rumford Baking Powder
1/2 tsp. nutmeg
1 1/2 c. milk (or milk substitute)
3 eggs

Beat all this together or mix will by hand. This should be slightly stiffer than cake batter. Let it sit for 15-30 minutes. Fry 1/4 cup or smaller spoonfuls of batter in hot oil, a few at a time until they are good and brown. Check one for doneness by breaking open the first donut to see if it is completely done. Rice flour products are very yucky flavored when they are not completely done, but get too dry if overdone. Drain well and roll in powdered sugar or cinnamon sugar or dip in vanilla or chocolate powdered sugar glaze. This make a large batch, but they freeze very well and make a ready snack for someone hungry for a really good donut.

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Terrific Belgian Waffles

[adapted from Mother Earth Cookery by Margaret Ritchie ("Just Margaret") <skyhawk@sk.sympatico.ca>]

1 cup crabapple juice (or substitute)
1 cup leftover vegetable broth
1 cup cooked beans (or sweet potato; see variations)
1/2 cup glutinous rice flour
1/2 cup white rice flour
1/2 cup potato starch
2 Tbl. baking powder
dash of sea salt (or small amount of regular salt)
optional: nuts, such as pecans

Place all ingredients in blender, including the nuts if desired. Heat waffle maker and place batter on hot waffle maker (you can use an ice cream scoop as a measure). The batter will overflow if there is too much, but the waffle will be too dry if you have too little. Do a test run to see how much you will need. Cook the first waffle about 5 minutes; the others should be checked by about 4 minutes. Makes about 8 waffles.

Serve with fresh fruit or dried fruit puree; the author recommends a combination of pumpkin seed butter and rice syrup. The leftovers freeze well and make excellent sandwiches.

Variations: Use part buckwheat flour; use chickpeas and part chickpea flour; use sweet potato in place of beans.


Chestnut Torte

from Eileen Kupstas Soo (kupstas@cs.unc.edu)

[From The I Hate to Cook Almanac, Peg Bracken c. 197?]

Torte:

3/4 cup butter
1 cup sugar
4 eggs, whites and yolks separated
1 tbls. rum
2 cups chestnuts (shelled, cooked until tender, then ground fine)
1/4 cup grated almonds, plus 1 tablespoon for preparing pan
1 cup whipping cream

Frosting:

1/2 lb. bitter chocolate
1/2 cup butter
more almonds for decoration

Preheat oven to 350 (F); prepare two 9 inch cake pans by greasing well and sprinkle the tablespoon of ground almonds on this.

Cream butter then gradually add sugar. Beat then add egg yolks. Add rum. Beat egg whites until stiff. Add chestnuts and almonds to butter mixture, beat thoroughly, then fold in egg whites. Pour into two cake pans. Bake 45 minutes at 350(F), then cool.

Whip the whipping cream with a tablespoon or two of sugar (this shouldn't be very sweet. Spread this on bottom layer of cake and place second layer on top.

Melt chocolate and butter together in a double boiler. Beat until thick enough to spread. Cover cake with this and decorate with almonds.

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Chocolate Peanut Butter Cookies

[adapted from The Allergy Cookbook and Food Buying Guide by Pamela Nonken and S. Roger Hirsch, M.D.]

These cookies rated highly with both my husband and my 5 year old niece (who enjoyed making them under supervision)

2 ounces unsweetened baking chocolate
1/2 cup crunchy natural peanut butter*
2/3 cup sugar, or less to taste
2 tablespoons vegetable oil (safflower oil is listed in original recipe)
1 cup rolled oats, uncooked
3/4 cup raisins
1/2 cup non-roasted nuts, chopped **

*you can use commercial peanut butter if allergies permit
**you can use another 1/2 cup raisins instead of the nuts

Melt chocolate and peanut butter together with oil, stirring occasionally. This can be done on the stove over low heat or in the microwave. When well blended, stir in the remaining ingredients. Drop by rounded teaspoonfuls onto waxed paper. You may need to use your hand to shape them if the cookies refuse to stick together; this won't matter in the final product. Chill until firm. These should be stored in the refrigerator.

About 2 dozen cookies.

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Chocolate Chip Cookies

Contributed by Chris Silker

3/4 cup butter/margarine (I use I Can't Believe It's Not Butter or lightly salted butter)
3/4 cup brown sugar
3/4 cup white sugar
2 tsp gf vanilla (or so - I just kinda dump it in there...) - the powder doesn't work so well
2 eggs (I use pasteurized eggs, so we can eat the dough)
1 cup sweet rice flour (my rice and tapioca flours are from an Oriental market)
1 cup rice flour
1/4 cup tapioca flour
1 tsp baking soda
1 tsp xanthan gum (can decrease this a bit if the dough seems too stiff)
1 cup chocolate chips

Cream butter and sugars. Add vanilla and eggs and mix well. Add dry ingredients and mix well. Add chocolate chips.

Bake for about 10 min at 350F, or until the edges are just starting to turn golden brown. Do NOT overbake. Let sit for a few minutes on the cookie sheet so they can set. These cookies don't warm up well in the microwave - they get a bit crumbly. Also, I tend to bake a pan at a time and keep the rest of the dough in the fridge, as these cookies dry out faster than the traditional kind.

^ up to recipe index


Chocolate Torte — Suggestions from other sources

1:
This is a pointer to a great chocolate torte. It contains only chocolate, butter, and eggs. It is technically a very easy torte to make, it is just "fastidious" (as my husband says). The directions are simple; you just need to follow them precisely. The torte is very rich and keeps well. Serve with very lightly sweetened whipped cream, or with rasberry puree, or with nothing at all.

Chocolate Oblivion Truffle Torte, from The Cake Bible by Rose Levy Beranbaum (William Morrow and Company, New York. c. 1988. ISBN 0-688-04402-6) This is probably in your local library.

2:
Maida Heatter's Book of Great Chocolate Desserts (by Maida Heatter, pub. Alfred A. Knopf, NY 1992. ISBN 0-394-50391-0) has three recipes with no flour. They do contain eggs, nuts, and chocolate. They are Torte Souffle au Chocolat, Torta di Cioccolata, and Sept. 7 Cake.

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Glazed Fruit Pie

[from Allergic People Eat Desserts Too! by Eleanor Bentley Milinusic]

contributed by: Tammy Schmidt

Pastry: use one that is suitable for your diet. There are several listed in the book.

Filling:
- 3 cups of sliced fruit

Glaze:
2 cups fruit
3/4 c water
1/3 c honey
3 T arrowroot

Make a chosen pastry.
Glaze:
Crush 2 cups of fruit and place in a pan with water and honey. Bring to a boil for 2 minutes. Pass through a food strainer. Press down well. (I used a food grinder with good results). Add arrowroot mixed with 1/8 cup of water to the strained mixture. Cook over low heat until thickened (this thickens quickly).

Arrange sliced fruit in pastry. Pour glaze over sliced fruit and chill. May be garnished with frozen drops of soy or nut whipped topping.

I found that there was a lot of glaze left over from this recipe and it makes wonderful jam for my daughter who cannot eat sugar. I made strawberry/banana pie with strawberry glaze. It will work for just about any fruit. You could make a the pies with one type of berry in the pie and a different berry for the glaze.

There is also a terrific brownie recipe in the book.

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Hazelnut Cookies

Contributed by Paul Kiesskalt. This is an old German recipe.

500 g pure icing sugar* ( about 1lb. 2oz.)
500 g ground hazelnuts (about 1lb. 2oz.)
10 egg whites
gluten-free flour (if required)

Procedure:
Beat the egg whites until very stiff. Fold in icing sugar. Fold in ground hazelnuts. Drop spoonfuls onto greased baking sheet. Bake for 10 minutes in pre-heated oven at 220 degrees C (425 F). If dough is too thin, add a little gluten-free flour.

*Icing sugar must be labelled "pure" - some icing sugars not labelled pure could contain gluten. [ed. - Icing sugar is known as confectioner's sugar in the US. It usually contains corn starch.]

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Melt-in-your-Mouth Shortbread

[adapted from The Food Allergy Cookbook]

1/2 cup cornstarch
1/2 cup icing [confectioner's] sugar
1 cup rice flour
3/4 cup butter

Sift cornstarch, sugar and rice flour together. Add butter. Mix with hands until soft dough forms. Refrigerate one hour. Shape dough into 1" balls. Place about 1-1/4 inches apart on greased cookie sheet; flatten with lightly floured fork. Bake at 300 (F) [150 (C)] for 20-25 minutes or until edges are lightly browned.

Variations:
Form balls as above. Roll in finely crushed corn flakes or crushed nuts. Press top of ball with thumb. Add a dab of jelly.

Mix in 2 tbls. finely chopped peel and/or 2 tbls. finely chopped nuts. Flatten with lightly floured fork.

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Orange Honey Quick Bread

Contributed by Ellen

Dry Ingredients:
1 cup white rice flour
1 cup brown rice flour
1/2 cup tapioca flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon xantham gum
3/4 cup fine chopped pecans or hazelnuts or walnuts

Wet Ingredients:
2 tablespoons softened butter or margarine
3/4 cup honey
2 egg whites or 1 egg, beaten
3/4 cup orange juice
1+1/2 tablespoon grated orange rind

Mix together the dry ingredients with a wire wisk. Mix the wet ingredients separately, then combine with the dry, and mix well. Pour into a greased medium-size loaf pan. Bake at 325 degrees for about 1 hour. Let the bread cool for 10 minutes before removing it from the pan.

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Passover Brownies

From Jewish Cooking in America by Joan Nathan
Alfred A. Knopf, 1994 [ISBN 0-394-58405-8]

3/4 sticks ( = 3/4 cup) unsalted butter or margerine
3/4 cup sugar
5 eggs, separated
6 oz. bittersweet chocolate
6 oz. finely ground almonds or almond flour
pinch of salt

1) Cream butter and sugar, then mix in egg yolks
2) Melt chocolate over double boiler; cool and add to butter mixture. Add almonds.
3) Beat egg whtes until stiff but not dry. Fold into batter.
Pour into a 9 inch by 9 inch square baking pan. Bake in preheated 350 (F) oven for 45 minutes. Cool and cut.

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Peanut Butter Cookies 1

Adapted from Of These Ye May Freely Eat by JoAnn Rachor

1/4 cup honey
2/3 cup peanut butter
1 3/4 cup oat flour*
1/4 cup water
1/4 teaspoon salt

Stir the honey and peanut butter together, then add water and salt. Add oat flour and stir well. Shape into small balls about one inch in diameter. Place on a greased cookie sheet and flatten to about 1/4 inch with a fork, making criss-cross patterns on the cookie. Bake at 350 (F) for about 20 minutes, or until golden brown.

*You can make oat flour by putting rolled oats into a blender or food processor and pulverizing them.

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Peanut Butter Cookies 2

Contributed by JoAnn McCleeary

This is the greatest peanut butter cookie recipe that I got from a daycare that needed to use up some government peanut butter. Even my non-gluten-free friends rave!

1 cup peanut butter, smooth or crunchy
1 cup sugar
1 egg

Mix well. Place on ungreased cookie sheet as for cookies, flattening slightly. Place sheet in a 350 degree preheated oven for about 10 minutes. Makes about 1 dozen or so.

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Pie Crusts — wheat free

This is a collection of various recipes from various sources

Meringue Shell

3 egg whites, at room temperature
1/8 tsp salt
1/4 tsp. cream of tartar
1/2 cup confectioners' sugar
/4 cup finely chopped nuts (optional)

Preheat oven to 275 (F). Grease 9 inch pie plate well; make sure you cover the bottom and sides. Beat egg whites with cream of tartar and salt until just frothy. Continue to beat while adding the sugar a bit at a time. COntinue beating until the egg whites turn stiff and glossy. Stir in nuts quickly, with minimum stirring, and pour meringue into pie shell. Smooth to form a proper pie shell. Bake for one to 1 - 1/2 hours, or until light brown and crisp throughout. Cool to room temperature, then fill.

This is best made and filled just prior to eating.

Nut Crust

1 - 1/2 cups finely chopped nuts
2 tablespoons granulated sugar
2 tablespoons butter or margerine, at room temperature

Preheat the over to 400 (F). Place all ingredients in a mixing bowl and mix well. Press the mixture in a 9 inch pie plate or baking pan; you shoudl have enough to cover the bottom and some of the sides of the pan. Place crust in oven and bake about 5 minutes, or until the crust is slightly browned. Cool then fill.

Crumb Crust

1- 1/2 cups crumbs (wheatfree cookies make good crumbs)
6 tablespoons butter or margerine, at room temperature

Mix the crumbs and butter or margerine in a small bowl. Make sure the crumbs are evenly coated. Press the mixture into a pie plate, making the crust as even as possible. Bake five minutes or until slightly borwned. Or, chill until firm instead of baking.

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Pumpkin Cookies

from Eileen Kupstas Soo (kupstas@cs.unc.edu)

[adapted from The Food Allergy Cookbook]

1 cup sugar
1/2 cup shortening
1 cup pumpkin
1 tsp. vanilla
1/2 tsp. salt (more or less)
1 cup rice flour
3/4 cup potato flour
1 tsp. baking soda
1 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 cup raisins
1/2 cup nuts (optional)

Cream sugar and shortening; add pumpkin, vanilla, and salt. Sift flours, soda, baking powder and cinnamon. Add to creamed mixture. Fold in raisins and nuts. Drop by teaspoonfuls on greased cookie sheet. Bake at 350 (F) [180 (C)] until done, about 10 minutes.

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Pumpkin Cookies 2

[From The Allergy Gourmet by Carol Rudoff]

1/2 cup margerine, softened (can use less)
1/4 cup sugar (can use less)
1/4 cup brown sugar
Substitute for 1 egg (I used Ener-G egg replacer)
1/2 cup cooked pumpkin
1 tsp. vanilla
1 cup barley flour (I used 1/2 oat + 1/2 rye flours, but others should work.) (If you use wheat flour, try low gluten flour such as cake flour.)
1-1/4 tsp. baking powder
1/4 tsp. salt
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/4 tsp. nutmeg
1/8 tsp. ginger
1/2 cup raisins (optional)

Cream margerine and sugars. Add egg substitute, pumpkin, and vanilla; beat in well. Stir in remaining ingredients until well-blended.

Drop by teaspoonful, about 1 inch apart on greased cookie sheet. These do not spread, so you may want to flatten slightly. It probably doesn't matter, other than aesthetically. Bake 350 (F) for 15 to 18 minutes or until center is set. (These will still look wet in the middle; just make sure they are set.) Makes 40 cookies or so.

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Rice or Potato Flour Sponge Cake

from Eileen Kupstas Soo (kupstas@cs.unc.edu)

[From The Joy of Cooking, c. 1967]

Preheat oven to 350 (oF); flour a 9 inch tube pan (angel food cake pan)

Sift 3 times or more:
3/4 cup potato flour or rice flour
1/2 cup sugar

Beat until light and creamy:
8 egg yolks

Stir these into flour mixture.

Beat until stiff but not dry:
9 egg whites

Fold the egg whites into the flour mixture by hand, gently but rapidly. Bake about 45 minutes (or until done). Cool upside down, as for angel food cake.

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Toll House Cookies

[adapted from The Food Allergy Cookbook]

3/4 cup soy flour
1/4 cup potato starch flour
1/2 tsp salt
1/2 tsp baking soda
1/2 cup margerine
6 tbls sugar
6 tbls brown sugar
1/2 tsp vanilla
1/4 tsp water
1 egg
Chocolate pieces
1/2 cup chopped nuts

Sift together flours, salt and baking soda. Blend margarine, sugars, vanilla, and water. Beat in egg. Add flour mixture and mix well. Stir in chocolate pieces and nuts. Drop by well-rounded teaspoons onto cookie sheet. Bake 10-12 minutes at 375 (F) [190 (C)].

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Milk or Egg Free

Coconut Milk

This is hardly a recipe; just an idea that works.

Canned coconut milk
water

Thin the coconut milk until you get the consistency you need. About equal water will get a reasonable milk substitute. The coconut taste isn't very strong after cooking, surprisingly enough.


Nut Milk

Yield: 2 cups

This can be used to replace milk in recipes that taste odd when made with commercial soy or rice milks. I use this for custards and puddings, since soy milk can take on a nutty taste when used in these. It is fine to drink, also. The fat content depends upon the type and quantity of nuts used. More nuts in proportion to water gives a richer milk. This is somewhere between whole milk and half-and-half in richness.

1 cup + approx. two tabls. almonds (blanched*) or raw cashews
------- use less for a less rich milk (1/2 cup = skim milk?)
2 1/2 cups water

Put nuts and water in a blender. Blend approximately 2 minutes (more or less, depends on your blender. The nuts should be pulverized.) Strain the resulting stuff to remove the nut chunks. (I use a mesh coffee filter [ex. Melitta gold filter] and a rubber spatula to force the liquid through. Paper coffee filters are too fine, and kitchen seives are too coarse.) This makes 2 cups, approximately.

*blanching the almonds (dipping in hot water for 30 seconds then removing the brown skins) results in a much prettier milk. The little brown flecks don't filter out so well.

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Rice Milk

contributed by Mary

2 cups rice
4 cups water

Rinse rice to clean. Pour 4 cups boiling water over rice and let soak for 1 to 2 hours. Blend 1 cup soaked rice with 2 1/2 cups water (can be cold water). Blend rice to a slurry (not a smooth liquid);pour into a pot and repeat with rest of rice. Bring to a boil and then reduce heat and simmer for 20 minutes. Line colander with nylon tricot or a few layers of cheesecloth. Put bowl under colander and pour rice mix in colander. Another 1 cup of water (or less or more) can be poured over the rice to get out more milk. Press with the back of a spoon, then twist nylon and squeeze out as much milk as possible

This milk is very plain and can be flavored with oil, vanilla, salt, etc.


Ricotta Cheese Substitute

[From The New American Vegetarian Cookbook by Marilyn Diamond]

This can be used to replace ricotta cheesse or other soft cheeses in lasagna, etc.

1 pound firm tofu
1/3 cup olive oil
1/2 tsp ground nutmeg
1/2 tsp seasoned salt or rock salt

Combine 3/4 of the tofu with everything else and mash smooth, or use a food processor. Mash in remaining tofu with a spoon to give the right texture.

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Sweetened Condensed Milk Substitute

by Sherree Cook

For one cup of sweetened condensed milk, blend:
3/4 cup Mori-Nu Silken Tofu
1/4 cup honey


Macaroni and "Cheese"

Contributed by Dawn Hyatt; adapted from Vegetarian Times Magazine

14 oz. uncooked elbow macaroni
4 cups water
10 oz. pkg soft silken tofu, drained
1 cup soymilk or rice milk
1/2 cup tahini (sesame seed paste)
3 tbsp nutritional yeast
1 tsp. turmeric (optional, see Note 3)
salt (to taste, see Note 2)
2 tbsp dairy-free margarine or canola oil (can be omitted)

Preheat oven to 350 degrees (see Note 1). Boil macaroni in water until just underdone, drain, rinse in cold water. Blend tofu and soymilk in blender or food processor until smooth. Add tahini, nutritional yeast, turmeric and salt;mix until smooth. In large bowl, stir together macaroni and 'cheese' sauce. Place mixture in lightly oiled oven proof casserole; top with pats of margarine. Bake until golden and bubbly, about 20 minutes. Serves 10.

Notes:
1) You do not need to bake it. I make this same recipe all the time without the baking step. Of course, one needs to cook the noodles longer if one isn't baking the dish.
2) If the flavor is not "cheese" like, then it needs more salt. Cheese is salty and when I first made this, I skimped on the salt and the flavor wasn't "right"
3) The turmeric is optional. This ingredient makes the dish "look" like real mac and cheese but it changes the flavor. For those who don't mind a "white" mac-n-cheese I would recommend leaving the turmeric out. It looks different but the flavor improvement is wonderful!

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Banana "Cream" Pie

from Eileen Kupstas Soo (kupstas@cs.unc.edu)

This can be varied by adding other things — coconut, etc.

1/2 cup sugar
6 tbls. cornstarch (or substitute other thickner)
1/4 tsp. salt
4 cups nut milk (see recipe above)
OR coconut milk, thinned with water a bit
2 well-beaten eggs or egg substitute in equivalent amount**
1 tsp. vanilla
3 very ripe bananas
Optional: pie shell, cooked and ready to go

Mix the sugar, salt, and cornstarch in the top of a double boiler* until the cornstarch lumps are gone. Slowly add the nut milk, stirring constantly. Stir constantly for 8 to 12 minutes until the mixture begins to thicken. Cover and cook 10 more minutes. Take about one cup of the milk mixture and slowly add to the beaten eggs; you want to avoid cooking the eggs. Now add the egg-milk mixture back into the rest of the milk mixture. Cook 2 more minutes, stirring often. Do not overcook. The mixture will thicken as it cools. Cool slightly then stir to release steam. Add vanilla and stir in well. Let cool until warm to the touch.

If you are making a pie, get out a cooked pie shell. If you are using a bowl, get that out. Alternate layers of sliced bananas and warm mixture, making sure each banana slice is coated. If the bananas aren't coated they turn a yucky purple-gray, but still taste okay. If the bananas are added while the mixture is too hot, they turn tough. If the mixture is too cool, the banana essence doesn't permeate the custard.

*You can substitute a heat-proof bowl over a pot of hot water for the double boiler; you just need to have a lid that fits for later. The custard will stick if you do not use a double boiler.
** you can use egg substitute here (ex. Ener-G egg replacer) with adequate results, but the pie won't be quite the same.

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Chocolate Pie

Adapted from a recipe on the Mori Nu Tofu container

One pie crust (9 inch)

1-1/2 packages silken tofu (firm or extra firm); this is about 29 ounces
1/2 cup honey, adjust to taste
6 ounces chocolate chips* (a little more than a cup), adjust to taste
— I happen to like more, say, 8 ounces
1/4 cup milk substitute (soy milk or nut milk)

Put tofu, milk, and honey in blender and blend until smooth — this may take be a minute or so. Meanwhile, melt chocolate chips in double boiler or in microwave. Add melted chocolate to tofu mixture in small additions, blending well before adding more. Pour into pie shell and bake at 325 (F) for 30 to 40 minutes, or until set.

* you can use 1/3 cup powdered unsweetened cocoa plus sugar to taste if you can't get dairy free chocolate chips. The taste will be much more cocoa-like (obviously), which I find I don't care for. I imagine baking chocolate and sugar to taste would work fine, too.

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Egg-Free Linzer Torte Bars

Contributed by Kathy Czopek

1 cup flour
1 cup powdered sugar
1 cup ground walnuts
1/2 cup margarine or butter, soft
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
2/3 cup red raspberry (or other) preserves

Heat oven to 375 (F) degrees. Mix all ingredients except preserves til crumbly. Press 2/3 of mixture int ungreased square pan, 9x9x2 inches. Spread with preserves. Sprinkle with remaining crumbs. Press gently into preserves. Bake 20 to 25 minutes, or til light golden brown. Cool completely; cut into 48 bars.


"Five minute" Chocolate Cake

contributed by: Phoebe Nilsen

1 c. sugar
1 1/2 c. unsifted flour
1/2 t. salt
1/4 c. cocoa
1 t. baking soda
1 T. lemon juice (or 1 tsp. vinegar)
1/3 c. oil
1 t. vanilla
1 c. cold water

Mix ingredients in order given. Pour into ungreased square 8 inch cake pan. Bake in a 350 degree oven for 30-35 minutes.

Frost or serve plain with ice cream. A double recipe is about right for a bundt pan, for a more festive looking cake.

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Frozen Fruit Tofulatu

contributed by: Mike Dulin

2 1/2 t Unflavored gelatin
1/8 t Salt
1/2 c Sugar
1 1/4 c Frozen fruit and/or berry juice concentrate, thawed
10 ea (oz) soft tofu or silken tofu, drained
1/4 c Safflower oil
3 T Fresh lemon juice
1/2 t Vanilla extract

Sprinkle gelatin over 3/4 cup water (in saucepan) and allow to sit 3 minutes. Cook over very low heat until gelatin is dissolved. Mix in salt and sugar and cook, stirring to dissolve sugar. Remove from heat. In blender, or processor, combine juice, tofu, oil, lemon juice, vanilla, 3/4 cup water and process until very smooth. Add gelatin mixture. Freeze in ice cream machine, according to manufacturers, instructions, or freeze in ice cube trays and follow manual instruction as noted above. Makes 2 pints.


Frozen Dessert - 6 variations

[Adapted from Tofu Cookery by Louise Hagler

These are basic recipes that can then be flavored as described in the options, below. For all of these, the directions are to blend the ingredients until smooth and creamy, then freeze in a home hand-operated or electric ice cream maker, using the machine's instructions.

Carob Honey

2 lbs. soft tofu (silken works well)
2 cups soy milk
1/4 tsp salt
1 cup honey
1 cup oil
6 Tbsp. carob
3 Tbsp. vanilla

Chocolate

2 lbs. soft tofu (silken works well)
2 cups soy milk
1/4 tsp salt
2 cups sugar
1 cup oil
1/2 cup cocoa powder
2 Tbsp. vanilla

Banana Honey

2 lbs. soft tofu (silken works well)
2 cups soy milk
1/4 tsp salt
5 ripe bananas
3/4 cup oil
3 Tbsp. vanilla
2/3 cup honey

Strawberry

2 lbs. soft tofu (silken works well)
2 cups soy milk
1/4 tsp salt
2 cups sugar
1 1/3 cups oil
1/4 cups fresh lemon juice
2 (20 oz.) pkgs. frozen unsweetened strawberries
2 Tbs. vanilla

The following 2 variations are close to the above, but have slightly different proportions.

Pineapple

2 lbs. soft tofu (silken works well)
1 1/3 cup soy milk
2 cups sugar
1 1/3 cups oil
1/4 cup fresh lemon juice
2 Tbsp. vanilla
2 (20 oz.) cans unsweetened crushed pineapple with syrup (reserve 2/3 cup drained pineapple to stir in before freezing)

Peach

Mix, then marinate in the refrigerator for about 1 hour:
8 medium peaches, peeled and chopped (this should be about 1 quart)
the juice of 2 lemons
1 cup sugar

Combine with:
1 1/2 lbs. soft tofu (silken works well)
3 cups soy milk
1 1/4 cups sugar
4 Tbsp. vanilla
1/2 tsp. salt

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Granita de Limone (Sicilian Lemon Ice)

Contributed by Joel Ehrlich

4 servings

4 lemons
1/2 cup granulated sugar
1 cup cold water

Begin the preceding night by squeezing the lemons into a strainer formed by placing a coffee filter in a strainer. Strain the lemon juice into a small bowl containing the cold water - this is a very slow (drop-by-drop) process.

Add the sugar the next morning. Mix very well with a wooden spoon until the sugar is completely dissolved. Pour into a tin or aluminum pan. Place the pan in the freezer. Let rest for about 5 hours, breaking up the solid layer of ice which forms at least once every hour. Remove the pan from the freezer. Cut the ice into pieces with a knife. Place the ice pieces in an ice crusher (or into a blender running at low speed). The ice should form a smooth consistent texture of imperceptible grains (almost like ice cream - no large grains or chunks).

Transfer to individual serving glasses.


MFK Fisher's War Cake

[adapted from How to Cook a Wolf by MFK Fisher]

2 cups flour
1/4 teaspoon baking soda
2 teaspoons baking powder

Sift these together.

1/2 cup shortening
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1 teaspoon other spices (cloves, mace, ginger..)
1 cup chopped raisins or other dried fruit (prunes, figs, etc.)
1 cup sugar, white or brown
1 cup water (note: you can substitute coffee for part of the water)

Put these ingredients in a pan and bring to a boil. Cook five minutes. Cool thoroughly. Add the sifted dry ingredients and mix well. Bake 45 minutes or until done in a greased loaf pan in a 325 to 350 (F) oven.

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MFK Fisher's Tomato Soup Cake

[adapted from How to Cook a Wolf by MFK Fisher]

3 tablespoons butter or shortening
1 cup sugar
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 can tomato soup ( about 15 ounces?)
2 cups flour
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1 teaspoon nutmeg, ginger, cloves mixed
1 1/2 cup raisins, nuts, chopped figs, what you will

Cream butter, add the sugar, and blend thoroughly, Add the baking soda to the soup, stirring well, and add this alternately to the first mixture with the flour and spices sifted together. Stir well, and bake in a pan or loaf tin at 325 (F)


Lemon Pie

[from the Ener-G Egg Replacer box]

1/4 cup Ener-G Egg replacer* or equivalent of two eggs
1 cup sugar
1/4 teaspoon salt (optional)
1 - 1/2 cups hot water
1/3 cup fresh lemon juice
2 tablespoons grated lemon rind

1 baked 9 inch pie shell

In double boiler, combine egg replacer, sugar and salt. Stir with until thoroughly blended. Add water, lemon juice and lemon rind. Continue stirring until smooth and thick. When dropped from spatula, pie filling should mound. Remove from heat. Stir for 5 minutes to cool. Pour into pie shell. Let cool thoroughly. Refrigerate at least 2 hours before serving.

*This is a product made of potato starch and calcium carbonate, mainly. You can probably substitute corn starch or arrow root starch in quantity to equal two eggs.

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Pumpkin Pie

contributed by: Eileen Kupstas Soo (kupstas@cs.unc.edu)

Note: This is an acceptable substitute for pie filling. I like it fine. My husband likes it ok, but says it tastes "nuttier" than the regular pumpkin pie. I haven't tried it on anyone outside the family :-) I'm working on the recipe still — I'll update this if I have a real breakthrough!

pie crust for 9 inch pie

1 can pumpkin for pie (about 16 ounces)
1 package silken tofu (about 20 ounces)
2 teaspoons vanilla extract
1/2 cup honey
1/2 cup sugar
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon allspice*
1 teaspoon nutmeg*
2 teaspoons cinnamon*
1 teaspoon ginger*

* or your favorite pie spices; use a bit more than you normally would since the tofu is bland.

Unflavored gelatin powder or other jelling agent (agar agar, etc.)
— enough to gel 1 cup of liquid by the instructions
1/4 cup hot water
Optional: 1/2 cup rich cashew milk or other cream substitute

Preheat oven to 350 (F). Put pumpkin and tofu in a blender and blend until no little tofu lumps remain. You may need to do this in two batches.

Move mixture to large bowl and mix in vanilla, honey, sugar, salt, and spices. Dissolve gelling agent in hot water. Mix in approximately one cup of the pumpkin mixture. Make sure you mix in well. Add this back into the rest of the pumpkin mixture, again mixing well. If you are using the optional cashew milk, add this to the pumpkin mixture now.

Place this in pie shell or bake as custard in a greased baking dish. Bake approximately 45 minutes or until knife inserted in center comes out clean (more or less; just not liquidy). It will solidify some upon cooling.

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Pumpkin Pie 2

Contributed by Gail Lewis
This is a no-bake version that uses unflavored gelatin as a thickener instead of cornstarch.

1 envelope unflavored gelatin
1/3 cup water
2/3 cup dairyfree milk substitute (your choice, we use farmrich)
2 cups (1 can) pumpkin
1/2 cup brown sugar
1/4 cup sugar
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon ginger
1/2 teaspoon sal

I let the gelatin sit in the water for a minute before dissolving it on low heat, and then just throw the rest into the pot, mix it together, and pour into the 9" prebaked or graham cracker crust. Then refrigerate for a couple hours. My husband's the one with the allergy, but I actually prefer this version to the traditional. We've also used the gelatin approach for a chocolate pudding pie free of dairy and eggs.


Raisin Snack Cake

[adapted from The I Hate to Cook Book by Peg Bracken]

1 cup raisins
2 cups water
1/2 cup margerine
1-3/4 cups flour (See note)
1 cup sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
1 tsp. baking soda
1/2 tsp. cinnamon (or more)
1/2 tsp. nutmeg (or more)

Optional:
1 tsp. vanilla
1/2 tsp. ginger (or more)
Chopped nuts

Using a saucepan big enough to be the mixing bowl, boil the raisins in the water for 10 minutes. Let cool. Add everything else (no need to sift). Bake in 10x10 pan for 35 min. at 350 (F). If you use a loaf pan, bake 55 minutes, same temp.

Note: I make this with rye flour, due to allergies, and it works fine, too. The texture is a bit crumblier, but the taste is unaffected.

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Measurement Conversion Information for non-US folk

These are the bare basics to get you rolling. For more detailed information see
rec.food.cooking FAQ — US site, or
rec.food.cooking FAQ — UK site

Liquid Measures

1 cup = 8 fluid ounces = 250 ml.
1 tablespoon = 1/2 fluid ounce = 16 ml.
1 teaspoon = 1/6 fluid ounce = 5-1/3 ml.
16 tablespoons = 1 cup
3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon

Dry Measures — Very Approximate

Whole grain flour 1 cup = 170 grams
White wheat flour 1 cup = 140 grams
Baking powder , 1 tablespoon = 15 grams
Baking soda, 1 tablespoon = 15 grams
Vanilla, 1 tablespoon = 12 grams
Salt, 1 teaspoon = 7 grams
Rolled oats 1 cup = 90 grams
Sugar white granulated 1 cup = 200 grams
Sugar brown 1 cup packed = 200 grams
Raisins one cup = 150 grams
Sesame seeds one cup = 135 grams
Chopped nuts one cup = 160 grams

Egg sizes — Large is the US standard for cooking

Egg (US, graded size "large") = 1.5 fluid ounces = 1.75 ounces without shell = 50 grams without shell
Egg whites (US, graded size "large" ) = 1 egg white = 2 tablespoons = 32ml = 30 grams
Egg yolks (US, graded size "large") = 1 egg yolk = 1 tablespoon = 16ml = 20 grams

Solid fats (butter, cheese, shortening, margerine, lard)

8 tablespoons = 4 ounces = 1/4 pound = 115 grams
Butter 1 stick = 8 tablespoons = 4 ounces = 1/4 pound = 115 grams

Temperatures:

250 (F) = 120 (C) = very slow
200 (F) = 150 (C) = slow
325 (F) = 165 (C) = moderately slow
350 (F) = 180 (C) = moderate
375 (F) = 190 (C) = moderately hot
400 (F) = 200 (C) = hot
450 (F) = 230 (C) = very hot
500 (F) = 260 (C)

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