#### Department of Computer Science College of Arts and Sciences The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

COMP259: Physically-Based Modeling, Simulation and Animation

# COMP 259: Physically-Based Modeling, Simulation and Animation

## Instructor: Ming C. Lin

Time and Place: TR 2:00-3:15pm, SN115
Office Hours: TR 3:15-4:15pm, SN223
TA: Claire O'Shea, TR 10:30am - 12:00pm, SN039
Prerequisites: Math 166 AND COMP136 OR Instructor's approval
Textbook: Course Notes and In-Class Handouts

## CHECK OUT THESE VIDEO CLIPS !!!

• Course Overview
• Lectures and Approximate Schedule
• Assignments and Projects
• WEBS of Physically-Based Modeling & Animation
• Geometric Algorithms & Software Available on the Web
• Conferences in Related Areas
• ### COURSE OVERVIEW:

Physically-based modeling and simulation attempts to map a natural phenomena to a computer simulation program. There are two basic processes in this mapping: mathematical modeling and numerical solution. The goal of this course is to understand both of them. The mathematical modeling concerns the description of natural phenomena by mathematical equations. Differential equations that govern dynamics and geometric representation of objects are typical ingredients of the mathematical model. The numerical solution involves computing an efficient and accurate solution of the mathematical equations. Finite precision of numbers, limited computational power and memory forces us to approximate the mathematical model with simple procedures.

In this course, we will study various techniques to simulate the physical and mechanical behavior of objects in a graphical simulation or a virtual environment. Students will learn about implementation of basic simulation programs that produce interesting results and verify its correctness. The course will cover three basic components in physically-based modeling and simulation:

• Geometry
• Collision Detection
• Computing Contact Manifolds
• Mechanics
• Particle Dynamics
• Rigid Body Dynamics
• Non-Rigid Body Dynamics
• Numerical Computing
• Initial Value Problems
• Boundary Value Problems
• Constraints & Differential-Algebraic Equations
• The goal of this class is to get students an appreciation of computational methods for modeling of motions in the physical and virtual world. We will discuss various considerations and tradeoffs used in designing simulation methodologies (e.g. time, space, robustness, and generality). This will include data structures, algorithms, computational methods and simulation techniques, their complexity and implementation. The lectures will also cover some applications of physically-based modeling and simulation to the following areas:
• Computer Animation
• Virtual Environments
• Medical Simulation and Analysis
• Special Effects Generation
• Computer Game Dynamics
• Rapid Prototyping for Design
• Haptic Rendering/Interfaces
• Robotics and Automation
• Bio-informatics
• Depending on the interests of the students, we may also cover geometric-based simulation techniques, such as constraint-based systems, inverse dynamics, kinematics of motions, motion planning, synethesis and generation of autonomous agents.

### LECTURES AND APPROXIMATE SCHEDULE

Here is a list of TENTATIVE lecture topics (subject to changes). Schedule and information on each topic (e.g. readings, web pointers) will be added during the semester before each class.

• Overview (Thur, Jan 12, 2006)
• Basics of Motion Generations for Animation (Tues, Jan 17, 2006)
• ODE Basics: Initial Value Problem (Thur, Jan 19, 2006)
• ODE & Intro to Particle System Dynamics (Tues, Jan 24, 2006)
• Particle System Dynamics (Thur, Jan 26, 2006)
• Particle Sysem Dynamics Simplification (Tues, Jan 31, 2006)
• Hair Modeling & Simulation (Thur, Feb 2, 2006)
• Constrained Dynamics (Tues, Feb 7, 2006)
• Implicit Methods (Thur, Feb 9, 2006)
• In-Class Demos (HW#1) (Tues, Feb 14, 2006)
• Review on Comp Geom (Thur, Feb 16, 2006)
• Collision Detection: Basics & Convex Polyhedra (Tues, Feb 21, 2006)
• Collision Detection: BVHs & Spatial Partitioning (Thur, Feb 23, 2006)
• Walt Disney Animation Presentation (Tues, Feb 28, 2006)
• Collision Detection: BVHs & Spatial Partitioning (Thur, Mar 2, 2006)
• Molecular Dynamics Simulations (Tues, Mar 7, 2006)
• Crowd Simulation & (Thur, Mar 9, 2006)
• SPRING BREAK (March 13-17, 2006)
• Modeling & Simulation Using Implicit Surfaces (Tues, Mar 21, 2006)
• Atmospheric Simulation (Thur, Mar 23, 2006)
• Rigid Body Dynamics (I) (Tues, Mar 28, 2006)
• Rigid Body Dynamics (II) & (Thur, Mar 30, 2006)
• Intro to Deformable Body Dynamics (Tues, Apr 4, 2006)
• HW#3 In-Class Demos (Thur, Apr 6, 2006)
• Speech Driven Facial Animation & Dynamics of Falling Leaves (Tues, Apr 11, 2006)
• Dynamics of Falling Leaves & Modeling of Electromagnetism (Thur, Apr 13, 2006)
• Project Progress Report (Tues, Apr 18, 2006)
• Physically-based Modeling of Natural Phenomena (Thurs, Apr 20, 2006)
• Intro to Comp. Fluid Dynamics & Modeling of Fluid Phenomena (Tues, Apr 25, 2006)
• Modeling of Fluid Phenomena & Interaction between Fluid & Objects (Thur, Apr 27, 2006)

### Reference Papers Used in Lectures:

• SIGGRAPH Course Notes on Physically-Based Modeling
• Reading List for the Class (updated throughout the semester)

• ### ASSIGNMENTS AND PROJECTS

The class grade of each student is determined by
• Homework (30%)
• Class Presentation (20%)
• Final Project (50%)

### SELECTED RESEARCH GROUPS:

• UNC Research Group on Geometric Algorithms for Modeling, Motion and Animation
• UNC Interactive Collision Detection and Proximity Queries Packages
• Simlab: Computer Tools for Analysis and Simulation (Cornell)
• iMAGIS (GRAVIR / IMAG research lab / INRIA)
• Center for Human Modeling and Simulation(UPENN)
• MIRALab (University of Geneva)
• Rutgers Computational Biomedicine Imaging and Modeling (Rutgers)
• University of Aukland, Bioengineering Research Group
• ### RESEARCHERS

• David Baraff (now at Pixar)
• Ronan Boulic
• David Breen
• Chris Bregler
• Robert Bridson
• Marie-Paule Cani
• Stephen Chenney
• Mathieu Desbrun
• Petros Faloutsos
• Ron Fedkiw
• Eugene Fiume
• Doug James
• Jessica Hodgins
• Michael Gleicher
• Hyeong-Seok Ko
• Dimitris Metaxas
• Brian Mirtich (now at Cognex)
• James O'Brien
• Carol O'Sullivan
• Richard Parent
• Dinesh Pai
• Nancy Pollard
• Jovan Popovic
• Zoran Popovic
• Jos Stam
• Peter Schroder
• Karan Singh
• Daniel Thalmann
• Demetri Terzopoulos
• Yizhou Yu
• Michiel van de Panne
• Andy Witkin's Gallery (now at Pixar)
• ### INDUSTRY

• Boston Dynamics Inc.
• Chris Hecker's Corner (Definition Six, Inc.)
• GamaNetwork
• Havok
• Immersion Corporation
• MAYA (Alias|Wavefront)
• MSC.Working Knowledge
• Pixar Animation Studios
• Rhythm & Hues Studios
• SensAble Technology
• Telekinesys
• ### GEOMETRIC ALGORITHMS AND SOFTWARES AVAILABLE ON THE WEB:

Here are just some possible locations to find geometric software/libraries and algorithmic toolkits you may need:
• Internet Finite Element Resources
• A comprehensive collection of geometric software
• CGAL: Computational Geometry Algorithms Library (in C++)
• LEDA: Library of Efficient Datatypes and Algorithms (in C++)
• The Stony Brook Algorithm Repository: Implementation in C, C++, Pascal and Fortran
• CMU's Computer Vision Homepage
• Finite element mesh generation and More
• Machine learning resources

### Other Reference Books in Computer Animation:

• Making Them Move: Mechanics, Control and Animation of Articulated Figures, by Badler, Barsky and Zelter, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1991.
• Advanced Animation and Rendering Techniques: Theory and Practice, by A. Watt and M. Watt, 1992.
• Computer Animation: Algorithms and Techniques, by Rick Parent, 1999.
• ### Other Reference Books in Mechanics:

• Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis, by R. D. Cook, D. S. Malkus and M. E. Plesha, John Wiley & Sons, 1989.
• Finite Element Procedures, by K.-J. Bathe, Prentice Hall, 1996.
• First Course in Continuum Mechanics, by Y.C. Fung, Prentice Hall, 1993.
• ### Other Reference Books in Numerical Methods:

• Numerical Recipes, by Press, Flanner, Teukolsky and Vetterling, Cambridge University Press.
• Handbook of Numerical Analysis, edited by Ciarlet and Lions, Vol. I - VI, North-Holland, 1994.
• ### Other Reference Books in Robotics:

• Robot Motion Planning, by Latombe, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.
• Robot Manipulators: Mathematics, Programming, and Control, by R. P. Paul, MIT Press, 1981.
• ### Other Reference Books in Geometry:

• Computational Geometry (Algorithms and Applications), by de Berg, van Kreveld, Overmars and Schwarzkofp, Springer-Verlag, 1997.
• Computational Geometry In C (Second Edition), by O'Rourke, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
• Handbook on Discrete and Computational Geometry, by Goodman and O'Rourke (eds), CRC Press LLC, 1997.
• Applied Computational Geometry: Toward Geometric Engineering, by Lin and Manocha (eds), Springer-Verlag, 1996.
• Algorithms in Combinatorial Geometry, by Edelsbrunner, Springer-Verlag, 1987.
• Computational Geometry (An Introduction), by Preparata and Shamos, Springer-Verlag, 1985.