In this work the perspective camera model is used. This corresponds to an ideal pinhole camera. The geometric process for image formation in a pinhole camera has been nicely illustrated by Dürer (see Figure 3.1). The process is completely determined by choosing a perspective projection center and a retinal plane. The projection of a scene point is then obtained as the intersection of a line passing through this point and the center of projection with the retinal plane .
Most cameras are described relatively well by this model. In some cases additional effects (e.g. radial distortion) have to be taken into account (see Section 3.1.5).