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In the simplest case where the projection center is placed at the origin of the world frame and the image plane is the plane , the projection process can be modeled as follows:
For a world point and the corresponding image point . Using the homogeneous representation of the points a linear projection equation is obtained:
This projection is illustrated in Figure 3.2. The optical axis passes through the center of projection and is orthogonal to the retinal plane . It's intersection with the retinal plane is defined as the principal point .