# Denotational Semantics

### Example: language of simple expressions

Introduces environments
**Syntactic Categories**

I in Ident (identifiers)
E in Exp (expressions)

**Syntax BNF**
E ::= 0 | 1 | I | (E1 + E2) | (E1 - E2)
| let I = E1 in E2 end

**Value Domains**
Int = { ..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ... } (integers)
rho in Env = Ident --> Int (environment, values for variables)

**Semantic Functions**
EE : Exp --> Env --> Int

**Semantic Equations**
EE [0] rho = 0
EE [1] rho = 1
EE [I] rho = rho(I)
EE [E1 + E2] rho = plus ( EE [E1] rho, EE [E2] rho )
EE [E1 - E2] rho = minus ( EE [E1] rho, EE [E2] rho )
note here the "+" and "-" on the left is SYNTAX.
The "plus" and "minus" on the right are operations defined on
corresponding value domains (here, Int, since EE generates Int)
For this reason, you can think of the Value Domains as algebras...
i.e., sets of values and operations on them, i.e., ADTs
EE [[ let I = E1 in E2 end ]] rho = EE [[ E2 ]] (rho[I |-> EE [[E1]] rho ])